by Tim Padfield

Recent items

The physics of low energy climate control. Article and lecture for the IIC congress, Turin, September 2018.

Climate control in archives. Article and lecture for Aprevu colloquium, Paris, June 2017.

Transporting a clock, for example. March 2017.

A tutorial on the basics of packing for transport of artefacts.

Climate control in the archive of the Arnamagnæan Institute

An analysis of seven years of stable climate achieved by simple means. This is the draft version of a contribution to the 16th seminar on the care and conservation of manuscripts, Copenhagen University, April 2016. A more detailed article is listed further down this index.

The microclimate in a Neolithic passage grave (April 2017)

Four years of measurement in a grave chamber south of Copenhagen show that ventilation is not a good idea and that sensors don't survive a continuous high RH.

Climate control without complexity

A lecture for the conference on sustainable museums held in Antwerp, 19 November 2015, emphasising the role of museum environment standards in inhibiting progress in low energy and low complexity climate control.

Climate control in the archive of the Arnamagnæan Institute

An analysis of seven years of stable climate achieved by simple means. November 2014

Air exchange rate measurement and moisture buffering calculation

A tutorial (also in pdf and epub, 2 MB), November 2014

Moisture transport through a porous non-hygroscopic material under non-isothermal conditions

An experiment which suggests that water vapour diffuses because of a difference in concentration rather than a difference in partial vapour pressure. This is a contribution to the Nordic Symposium on Building Physics,in Lund, June 2014

Low energy museum storage

A merging of recent lectures which gives a systematic description of the building physics, confirmed by measured stores and archives.
Also in pdf and epub formats. December 2013

Containing the discussion about museum environmental standards

Video of a lecture to the Paris meeting of the Centre de recherche sur la conservation des collections, October 2013 (external link).
The images are a bit blurred so you can better follow the arguments with the lecture slides (pdf)

Environmental standards in an age of energy anxiety (pdf 5MB).

Transcript of a lecture at the conference "Sharing conservation decisions 2013", National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth, June 2013.

Workshop on low energy museum storage design, October 2013

A history of conservation in Denmark

This is a revived version of the first ever internet exhibition mounted by the National Museum of Denmark, now unfindable on its modern advanced website. The exhibition was mounted as part of the IIC congress "Archaeological Conservation and its Consequences", in 1996.

Museum storage controlled by solar energy

A paper presented at the "Climate for Conservation" meeting in Munich, November 2012.

The off-grid museum

A lecture to the annual meeting of the American Institute for Conservation, Philadelphia, June 2011

Ultra low energy museum storage

published in ICOM-CC, September 2011
and the corresponding lecture(pdf) and
Ultra low energy museum storage,
the version as published, with annoying frames around the illustrations.

Humidity buffering of building interiors

Contribution to the 9th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, Tampere, Finland, May 2011
and the corresponding lecture
A longer version of the article, with experimental detail and extended discussion (3.5 Mb, August 2011)
and a postscript giving a measured example of a wall surface buffered room (pdf, 1.5Mb) June 2012.

Calculator for predicting energy consequences of climate specifications December 2010

Calculator for conservation heating November 2010

Workshop on energy efficient museum buildings. October 2010.

This has finished but you can still read the course content.

Requiem for the Cologne City Archive

The collapse in 2009 of the archive raises the question: do buildings have to be massive to provide a stable indoor climate without air conditioning? March 2010.


A wiki for public comment on any page of this compendium.
The wiki is also used for course announcements and compendia, and for private discussions and data exchange for work in progress.



Introduction to this compendium of articles on preventive conservation and building physics applied to historic materials and structures.

How to keep for a while what you want to keep for ever

A light hearted introduction to preventive conservation

Basic concepts in climate

Fundamental microclimate concepts

An introduction to concepts and units concerning heat, moisture and light, which affect the interior environment.

Calculator for atmospheric moisture

A calculator for deriving moisture concentrations in air from dew point and psychrometer data

Calculator for conservation heating

A calculator for deriving the temperature at which a certain RH is attained

Calculator for dehumidification energy load

Calculate the energy needed for dehumidification of storage spaces, given the interior temperature and target RH.

Calculator for energy use in museums

A calculator for estimating the energy consumption associated with the climate specification and the design of a building.

Why do tea bags swell in hot water?

Vapour pressure of water in air, explained through the swelling of a tea bag.

Mixing Ratio and Absolute Humidity

Definitions and explanations of the usefulness of mixing ratio and absolute humidity

Light and photochemistry

The effect of light on museum objects

The effect of light on museum objects with particular attention to colours

The Candela - unit of luminous intensity

An explanation of the fundamental SI unit for light intensity, from which all other luminous units can be derived.

The light-fastness of the natural dyes

Information on the light-fastness of natural dyes is reviewed. New tests on the fastness of several dyes in fluorescent lamp light are reported.

The Deterioration of Cellulose in light and UV

This is a review of research on the deterioration of cellulose through exposure to light, ultraviolet and high energy radiation. The literature coverage stops at 1969, but the radiation sensitivity of cellulose was by then adequately researched because of the widespread use of cellulosic fabrics in aircraft construction before 1930.

The lux is a poor predictor of photochemical damage

The lux gives great weight to light at about 550 nm, which is far from the most damaging radiation at about 400nm

Properties of Materials

The absorption of water by materials

The sorption isotherm describes the reversible absorption of water by materials exposed to a changing relative humidity

Humidity exchange with absorbent materials

The exchange of moisture between materials and air

The reaction of wood to changing climate

The sorption of water by wood and its effects on the physical dimensions of wood.

Bending the evidence

Permanent set in wood caused by unsymmetrical moisture stress

What happens to water absorbent materials below zero degrees?

The behaviour of water in moisture absorbent materials at low temperatures. The concept of freezing does not apply when the equilibrium RH is moderate.

Water vapour transmission in a temperature gradient

Water vapour transmission through a porous material in a temperature gradient seems to depend on the water vapour concentration gradient rather than on the vapour pressure gradient, as is often assumed.

Stress, strain and craquelure

A description of the concepts of stress and strain with particular application to paintings on canvas.

The art robbery at Skamkloster

A story which illustrates the efflorescence of inorganic salts as the relative humidity fluctuates


Buffering relative humidity within a temperature gradient

There is a large risk of condensation when cooling or warming happens quickly. The thermal inertia of materials generates large temperature differences over small distances which can cause acute condensation.

Transporting a clock, for example

A tutorial on packing an object for transport, with a paper wrap, then polyethylene, then insulation.

Evidence from thin air

A story about the effect of changing air pressure on the relative humidity around goods in transit

The second Seismograph of Chang Heng

On the difference between heat flow into an enclosure and the temperature which it reaches

A Himalayan Legend

A Himalayan legend describes the surprising consequences of moisture movement caused by temperature gradients in small enclosures.

The Hunt Ball

A glimpse into the microclimatic mysteries of glass cases.

How to protect glazed pictures from climatic insult

The climate in a glazed picture frame is surprisingly violently affected by exposure on an outer wall or to direct sunlight indoors.

A humidification chamber for relaxing works of art

The working principles of a humidity chamber for moistening art without risking condensation

Air exchange between an enclosure and its surroundings

A tutorial about the measurement and interpretation of the air exchange rate and introduction to the calculation of moisture buffer capacity in enclosures.

Control of RH and air pollution in showcases

The effect of absorbent materials and restricted air exchange on the course of the RH in showcases and picture frames.

Humidity buffering by porous, absorbent insulation

The influence on the room climate of moisture absorbent insulation in the exterior walls of houses

Trouble in Store - indoor air pollution

As air pollution in cities diminishes, or at least changes its nature, the air pollution generated within buildings becomes a relatively more serious cause of deterioration. The low rainfall indoors allows hygroscopic salts to develop and remain, without ever being washed away. Nearly airtight enclosure brings the threat of damage by modern materials outgassing into the air around museum objects, as well as chemicals given off by self-destructive objects. The commonest indoor pollutants are acid gases from the decomposition of wood, cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate. Acid attack requires a thin watery film on the surface of the object to allow ionic processes to occur. Within showcases, there is competition between absorption on the object, absorption on a sacrificial absorber and ventilation out through imperfections in the seal.


A lecture to the lime forum in 2011 about the concept of breathability applied to buildings

The physics of drying cloth

Heat and ventilation are both necessary to drying. An experiment shows the relative importance of these two influences and how to dry without over drying to equilibrium with a low relative humidity

A small cold store for film

A warmed container set within a standard chest freezer maintains a moderate RH at about -5 C

Correlation without causality keeps alive the myth of ventilation as good

The persistent emphasis on the need for ventilation to suppress mould growth is wrong and forces unnecessary complexity and cost on environmental control.

A workshop cool plate

A cool plate in A2 size, with programmable temperature cycle between 8 and 40 degrees. Useful for controlled humidification of objects and for controlled drying to ambient RH without overshooting.

Climate behind the pictures in Ledreborg chapel

The climate behind the oil paintings mounted on the outer walls of the Baroque chapel of Ledreborg house in Denmark is surprisingly benign, compared with the climate in the chapel.

The spontaneous transfer to glass of an image of Joan of Arc

A woven silk picture transferred its image to the glass against which it had been pressed for fourteen years. The image was formed from salt, which occupied the areas where the silk had not touched the glass. Salt impregnation increases the water absorption of silk at a relative humidity below the value at which pure salt deliquesces. A salt solution had formed in the fabric at a moderate relative humidity and then migrated to the glass where the salt precipitated because the relative humidity was below the deliquescence point of pure salt. The process has been replicated.

The interaction of water vapour with paper in small spaces

The interaction of water vapour with paper, with particular reference to humidity buffering of leaky spaces where the kinetics of water movement through paper is significant.

The effect of moisture on the performance of woodwind instruments

The player's breath causes condensation within the joints of woodwind instruments causing the joint to swell against the outer band of wood, metal or ivory. On drying, the joint contracts to a smaller diameter, throwing the instrument out of tune.

The microclimate in a Neolithic passage tomb

Climate measurements show the performance of sealed versus open grave chambers and the advantage of an impermeable floor covering

A cooled case for George Washington's commission

A cooled case using thermoelectric cooling

The response to changing temperature of a back-protected canvas

An experiment with a picture set against a variable temperature 'wall' and protected by various back plates.

Air conditioning and building physics

Physics of low energy storage

A comprehensive account of the physics of the microclimate in stores without explicit temperature control

Mechanical air conditioning

The principles of mechanical air conditioning in large buildings

The Mollier diagram and the Psychrometric Chart

An explanation of the construction principles of the Mollier diagram and its almost identical alternative - the psychrometric chart.

Physics of low energy storage - summary

A summary of the building physics underpinning low energy museum and archive storage.

Low energy museum storage

Allowing a moderate annual temperature cycle in a museum store allows a much simplified and energy efficient control of RH.

The breath of Arrhenius: air conditioning in photographic archives

The air conditioning needed for film archives, analysed in relation to Arrhenius plots of the rate of deterioration.

Condensation in the walls of humidified buildings

Examples of museum buildings which have suffered condensation in the structure caused by leakage of humidified indoor air through the outer walls and roof.

Drifting temperature air conditioning

Drifting temperature with dehumidification provides a cool storage environment, but will environmental standards allow this?

Humidity buffering by museum walls

A review of the process of water exchange between room to wall

Humidity buffering by absorbent materials in walls

A review of the moisture buffering performance of construction materials.

Requiem for the Cologne City Archive

The idea that a massive building gives a good archive climate is not as clear cut as one might think.

Humidity buffering by clay walls

How to use absorbent materials in walls to buffer the relative humidity in archives and stores.

Casting mud in the debate on museum environmental standards

A suitable choice of building materials would give museums a stable climate without air conditioning.

Designing museums with a naturally stable climate

A review of trends in modern museum architecture which reduce the natural stability of the indoor climate but paradoxically increase the possibility for stabilising it without massive air conditioning installations.

The role of absorbent materials in moderating changes of relative humidity

A phd thesis on moisture buffering by construction materials. Chapters on the fundamentals of the interchange of moisture between air and materials

The influence of building techniques on the indoor climate

A review of the influence of building construction techniques and materials on the inner climate, with a section on biological growth in houses.

The climate of Gundsoemagle Church

Humidity buffering by porous walls has a considerable moderating influence on the indoor climate.

Climate control without complexity

Museum environment standards inhibit the use of simple climate control, particularly in storage, through their insistence on fixed temperature limits and expensive storage protocols.

Climate control in the archive of the Arnamagnaean Institute

Semi passive relative humidity control by mixing heat flow from the outside and heat from the building interior

Low energy climate control
for museum stores

An examination of five control strategies for controlling the temperature and relative humidity in stores containing an abundance of moisture absorbent materials.

How to design climatically stable museums

Illustrations of the interaction of the local climate with a building without mechanical air conditioning.

Ten years experience of energy efficient climate control in archives and museum stores

Museum stores which use the earth below as a temperature buffer hold a moderate temperature all through the year. Dehumidification is necessary in summer. It can be solar powered.

The Off-Grid Museum

A lecture about low energy museum design, delivered to the AIC meeting, Philadelphia 2011

Designing a Museum Store

An analysis of the north European climate and of the preservation requirements of typical museum objects suggests a suitable low energy method of air conditioning a museum store designed to hold relatively durable materials: outside air is sucked in when its water vapour content is unusually low while the temperature is raised slightly to give a relative humidity not far below the limit for biological growth. This combination gives a low degradation rate for both objects and the building that encloses them.

solar heated store

Solar heating plus temperature buffering by ground and humidity buffering by construction materials provide fully passive climate control for a museum store

Climate control in the Arnamagnaean archive - published version

Passive climate control by balancing heat gain from the building against heat loss to the outside.

Sensors, measurement and data handling

Saturated salt solutions for controlling relative humidity

The theory and practice of using saturated salt solutions to define a relative humidity for sensor calibration or for treatment.

Measuring stress and strain

Measuring stress and strain in the context of conservation and building physics.

The thermocouple

The thermocouple: how it works and how to use it.

Data loggers for climate measurement

Data loggers for climate measurements, with hints on how to choose and use sensors.

A climate chamber that measures the moisture buffer capacity of materials

A description of a climate chamber designed to measure the moisture absorption and release by materials and constructions exposed to a changing moisture flux.

UV detector for museum use

An instrument is described which allows the eye to detect sources of ultraviolet radiation. Coincident ultraviolet and visible images of the scene are viewed through an eyepiece. The suspected source of radiation is centered in the field of view. The visible image is then extinguished by operating a shutter. Ultraviolet radiation is revealed by yellow-green fluorescence from a small target in the centre of the field.

Using a camera as a lux meter

How to use a camera as a lux meter, particularly for estimating lux within an inaccessible showcase.

Manipulating and plotting climate data

How to use awk and other unix utility programs to convert and merge climate data files ready for plotting with gnuplot

Environmental standards

The Preservation Index and the Time Weighted Preservation Index

An explanation of the science behind the Image Permanence Institute's Preservation Index and Time Weighted Preservation Index

Does a standard temperature need to be constant?

The present museum standards for temperature all demand constancy to a degree or two. There is no evidence that this is necessary. It is surely just the assertion of what is thought possible with air conditioning. This article is in 'Going Green', British Museum, April 2009

Environmental standards for museums

Several articles and publications challenging the strictness of temperature standards for museums and archives and proposing a more open development process.

Museum environmental standards

Transcript of a lecture at the National Museum of Wales, describing the slender evidence base for museum standards.


A history of conservation in Denmark

The 1996 exhibition made for the IIC congress in Copenhagen "Archaeological conservation and its consequences"

Writing for the web without being an IT expert

Writing technical literature on the web - a discussion of the possibilities for authors without much knowledge of information technology.

Publications by Tim Padfield

List of publications by Tim Padfield

External links

Sustainable climate management strategies. A workshop organised by the Getty Conservation Institute on Tenerife in April 2007

Passive design,mechanical systems and doing nothing: a telephone discussion about environmental management. in the Getty Conservation Institute newsletter 22.1, Spring 2007


Creative Commons License
All articles in this Conservation Physics compendium, except the external links, are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.