Titles and abstracts of the articles in the publication
Research Techniques in Photographic Conservation

Planning New Storage - Standards and Reality
Erland Kolding Nielsen, The Royal Library of Denmark

The National Plan for Conservation of Photographs in Norway
Roger Erlandsen, National Institute for Historical Photography in Norway

Research and Conservation of Photographs in Finland
Riitta Koskivirta, The Photographic Museum of Finland

A New National Strategy for Preservation of Photographs in Sweden
Eva Dahlman, The Swedish Secretariat for Photographic Collections

Quantifying the Vulnerability of Photogenic Drawings
Mike Ware, Derbyshire, UK

Understanding Alfred Stieglitz' Platinum and Palladium Prints: Examination by X-ray
Fluorescence Spectrometry

Constance McCabe and Lisha Deming Glinsman, National Gallery of Art, USA

Examination of Photographs with TEM -
Sample Preparation and Interpretation of the Image

Ulla Boegvad Kejser, School of Conservation, Denmark

The Evaluation of Conservation Treatments
Klaus B. Hendriks, Canadian Conservation Institute, Canada

The Breath of Arrhenius: Air Conditioning in Photographic Archives
Tim Padfield and Jesper Stub Johnsen,
The National Museum of Denmark, Department of Conservation.
Full text

Standards on the Permanence of Imaging Materials
Peter Z. Adelstein, Image Permanence Institute, Rochester Institute of Technology, USA

Moisture Content Isolines and the Glass Transition of Photographic Gelatin;
their Significance to Cold Storage and Accelerated Aging

Mark H. McCormick-Goodhart, Smithsonian Institution, USA

Prediction of Dark Stability of Colour Chromogenic Films using Arrhenius Law
and Comparison after Ten Years of Natural Ageing

Bertrand Lavedrine, CRCDG, France

Accelerated Aging Tests
James M. Reilly, Image Permanence Institute, Rochester Institute of Technology, USA

The Practical Presentation of Research Studies on Film Stability
Douglas W. Nishimura, Image Permanence Institute,
Rochester Institute of Technology, USA

Microchemistry Used to Detect Deterioration in Acetate Films
Jens Glastrup, The National Museum of Denmark

Lifetime Prediction: Fact or Fantasy?
Michele Edge, Centre for Archival Polymeric Materials, The Manchester Metropolitan University, UK

Current Research Needs in the Conservation Treatment of Deteriorated Photographic Print Materials
Debbie Hess Norris, University of Delaware, USA

Degradation Survey Programme at the National Library of Norway, Rana Branch
Karl-Espen Antonsen, Norwegian National Library, Rana Branch (NBR)

Restoration without 'treatment' - Analogue Information Lost and Found - Digitally Retrieved
Jonas Palm, The Royal Library of Denmark and
Mogens S. Koch, School of Conservation, Denmark

Abstract (Padfield):
Observations on collections of photographs show that the rate of deterioration is very variable, depending as much on the quality of the processing as on the inherent stability of the materials. The current standard storage climate for negatives is based on the degradation rate of cellulose acetate. This climate does not prevent the deterioration of badly manufactured or processed film but demands expensive equipment that is not necessary for the survival of sheet film that is in good condition. We suggest an approach to collections management which eases the climate specification for the bulk of the collection, compensated by regular surveying of the collection with eye, nose and chemical sensors. Decaying images are found and put into a cold store to retard deterioration, followed by copying and possible chemical treatment.

Abstract (Erlandsen):
Approximately 40 million photographs are preserved in Norwegian institutions. We know that much of this material is badly stored and difficult to access. Do we need to preserve it all, is there anything missing? I shall give a short presentation of the official work with these problems, with emphasis on a project initiated in 1994: The National Plan for Conservation of Photographs.

Abstract (Ware):
The first silver photographs on paper, W.H.F. Talbot's 'photogenic drawings', were not fixed by thiosulphate, but simply 'stabilised' by excess halide ion: they are consequently still sensitive to light today. A theoretical estimate is compared with experimental evidence to demonstrate the extreme light sensitivity of these photographs and the importance of the Becquerel Effect in sensitising this material to light of long wavelengths. A quantitative definition of 'damage' - the Threshold Exposure Lifetime - is put forward to assist the discussion of the best methods for conserving such historic photographs. It is concluded that exposure to 50 lux gallery illumination for as little as four hours could result in perceptible damage to photogenic drawings.

Abstract (McCabe):
This paper describes the complex chemical nature and variety of physical appearances of platinum and palladium photographs. The exact process by which these single-layered photographs were made cannot be determined by visual examination alone. The metallic elements that constitute the final image in a single-layered photograph can be identified by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) if the photograph is analyzed using standards made by known photographic processes.

Abstract (Kejser):
Transmission electron micrographs of silver gelatin photographs show that the sample preparation and the electron beam alters the structure of the silver image. Sample preparation should be kept at a minimum. Cross linking with aldehydes, should be omitted from the plastic embedding procedure, because it seems to round the silver grains.

Abstract (Adelstein):
Standards on the permanence of imaging materials are the result of ongoing activities within the International Standards Organization (ISO) as well as in national standardizing bodies. There are four types of documents which have been published in this field. A key development in recent years has been the agreement on definitions which classify materials having different stability levels. A second area is specifications which describe minimum property requirements for materials with specified life expectancies. Standard practices have been written which recommend storage conditions for photographic film prints and plates. The fourth type of document deals with test methods which have been prepared for measuring color stability, photographic activity of enclosures, effectiveness of the chemical conversion of silver images and the measurement of residual hypo.

Abstract (McCormick-Goodhart):
Constant moisture content in a photographic gelatin can be established experimentally by sealing the gelatin in a vapor tight container with little free air volume compared to the volume of gelatin Moisture content isolines can then be determined by varying the temperature and measuring the relative humidity in the free space after thermal and vapor phase equilibrium is reached. Surprisingly, the moisture content isolines reveal the glass transition temperature of the gelatin and its strong dependence on moisture content. The glass transition is correlated with the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter for a gelatin-water system, and the effects of water on the physical properties of the gelatin-water system are presented. Finally, the relationship between moisture content, relative humidity, and temperature is discussed with respect to accelerated> aging tests of photographic materials and long term storage in cold temperature environments.

Abstract (Lavédrine):
Accelerated ageing tests have become common practice in the field of the conservation of cultural properties. These tests have a two-fold purpose: firstly, to direct users towards good materials with qualities and performance that are well tested over time ; secondly, to achieve a better knowledge of the changes in the physical properties of works of art, so as to identify the most sensitive object in order to place them in an appropriate environment. With regard to dark ageing, its reliability is vastly improved when Arrhenius law and simple kinetic models are used. The great advantage of this methodology is that it enables one, under certain conditions, to quantify the durability of materials. The purpose of the following paper is to re-examine the principles that justify the use of Arrhenius law, and also to state some of its constraints and the limits on the use of the resulting data Lastly, research carried out about ten years ago by the author on the stability of some chromogenic colour films will provide a good opportunity of comparing the effects of natural ageing with the results predicted by the application of this law.

Abstract (Reilly):
Accelerated aging tests are a necessary requirement to advance our knowledge of photographic preservation. Tests based on a single accelerated test condition should only be used when there is sufficient background information which establishes the validity of the procedure. The other alternative is the study of aging behavior at a series of elevated temperatures using the Arrhenius methodology. This approach can employ incubations in closed or open systems, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. The Arrhenius method of predicting long-term behavior fails when changes at elevated temperatures do not reflect room temperature behavior. Examples are given of excellent Arrhenius plots for such diverse properties as color image, gelatin and film base stability.

Abstract (Nishimura):
Practical or applied research into photographic preservation is of less value to the field if the information cannot be disseminated to non-technical users in a simple, easily understood way. At the Image Permanence Institute, a variety of simplified information packages have been created as "Preservation Management Tools." This paper will discuss the development and evolution of one such tool based on acetate base deterioration. This tool was born out of a study to characterize the deterioration of acetate film base, evolved into the IPI Storage Guide for Acetate Film, and has now become a combined electronic monitor and analysis software.

Abstract (Edge):
This paper is a critical appraisal of the accelerated ageing tests currently adopted to predict the lifetime of photographic materials. The applicability of methods of acceleration, quantification of degradation and mathematical models are considered; in particular the validity of the Arrhenius relationship. The correlation between lifetime predictions derived from artifical exposure and actual (archival) exposure is discussed.

Abstract (Norris):
Review of the research agenda identified by the 1988 Fading Committee, the compiled results of the American Institute for Conservation (AIC) Conservation Research Task Force (published 1994), and an informal survey of practicing photographic conservators indicates a strong need for scientific research into many issues surrounding the conservation treatment of photographic materials. Specifically, these varied sources identify the need for additional research relating to consolidation, surface cleaning, humidification and flattening, unmounting and mounting techniques, chemical treatments, and compensation for loss.

Abstract (Antonsen):
This paper describes first the preservation work done at the Norwegian National Library, Rana Branch (NBR), in the two departments which work with audiovisual material, and then it describes the institution's storage facilities. Finally I present some questions about climate limits in storage of photographic materials, and mixed collections.

Abstract (Glastrup):
To evaluate the fate of cellulose acetate film base during artificial ageing the evolution of gaseous products was followed through the absorption of these to an absorptive needle. It is demonstrated that components from the film base material can be analysed and quantified using this method. The development of acetic acid and phenol, the latter presumably a good indicator of triphenylphosphate degradation, is compared to results found by alkali titration of film base material.


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